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 english lessons 1

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مُساهمةموضوع: english lessons 1    18.09.12 16:55


list of irregular verbs





Base FormSimple Past TensePast Participle
awakeawokeawoken
bewas, werebeen
bearboreborn
beatbeatbeat
becomebecamebecome
beginbeganbegun
bendbentbent
besetbesetbeset
betbetbet
bidbid/badebid/bidden
bindboundbound
bitebitbitten
bleedbledbled
blowblewblown
breakbrokebroken
breedbredbred
bringbroughtbrought
broadcastbroadcastbroadcast
buildbuiltbuilt
burnburned/burntburned/burnt
burstburstburst
buyboughtbought
castcastcast
catchcaughtcaught
choosechosechosen
clingclungclung
comecamecome
costcostcost
creepcreptcrept
cutcutcut
dealdealtdealt
digdugdug
divedived/dovedived
dodiddone
drawdrewdrawn
dreamdreamed/dreamtdreamed/dreamt
drivedrovedriven
drinkdrankdrunk
eatateeaten
fallfellfallen
feedfedfed
feelfeltfelt
fightfoughtfought
findfoundfound
fitfitfit
fleefledfled
flingflungflung
flyflewflown
forbidforbadeforbidden
forgetforgotforgotten
forego (forgo)forewentforegone
forgiveforgaveforgiven
forsakeforsookforsaken
freezefrozefrozen
getgotgotten
givegavegiven
gowentgone
grindgroundground
growgrewgrown
hanghunghung
hearheardheard
hidehidhidden
hithithit
holdheldheld
hurthurthurt
keepkeptkept
kneelkneltknelt
knitknitknit
knowknewknow
laylaidlaid
leadledled
leapleaped/leaptleaped/leapt
learnlearned/learntlearned/learnt
leaveleftleft
lendlentlent
letletlet
lielaylain
lightlighted/litlighted
loselostlost
makemademade
meanmeantmeant
meetmetmet
misspellmisspelled/misspeltmisspelled/misspelt
mistakemistookmistaken
mowmowedmowed/mown
overcomeovercameovercome
overdooverdidoverdone
overtakeovertookovertaken
overthrowoverthrewoverthrown
paypaidpaid
pleadpledpled
proveprovedproved/proven
putputput
quitquitquit
readreadread
ridridrid
rideroderidden
ringrangrung
riseroserisen
runranrun
sawsawedsawed/sawn
saysaidsaid
seesawseen
seeksoughtsought
sellsoldsold
sendsentsent
setsetset
sewsewedsewed/sewn
shakeshookshaken
shaveshavedshaved/shaven
shearshoreshorn
shedshedshed
shineshoneshone
shoeshoedshoed/shod
shootshotshot
showshowedshowed/shown
shrinkshrankshrunk
shutshutshut
singsangsung
sinksanksunk
sitsatsat
sleepsleptslept
slayslewslain
slideslidslid
slingslungslung
slitslitslit
smitesmotesmitten
sowsowedsowed/sown
speakspokespoken
speedspedsped
spendspentspent
spillspilled/spiltspilled/spilt
spinspunspun
spitspit/spatspit
splitsplitsplit
spreadspreadspread
springsprang/sprungsprung
standstoodstood
stealstolestolen
stickstuckstuck
stingstungstung
stinkstankstunk
stridestrodstridden
strikestruckstruck
stringstrungstrung
strivestrovestriven
swearsworesworn
sweepsweptswept
swellswelledswelled/swollen
swimswamswum
swingswungswung
taketooktaken
teachtaughttaught
teartoretorn
telltoldtold
thinkthoughtthought
thrivethrived/throvethrived
throwthrewthrown
thrustthrustthrust
treadtrodtrodden
understandunderstoodunderstood
upholdupheldupheld
upsetupsetupset
wakewokewoken
wearworeworn
weaveweaved/woveweaved/woven
wedwedwed
weepweptwept
windwoundwound
winwonwon
withholdwithheldwithheld
withstandwithstoodwithstood
wringwrungwrung
writewrotewritten
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pronouns / adjectives / comparaison / superlative / adverbs






pronouns and adjectives
personal pronouns :i/you/he/she/it/we/you/they
object pronouns :me/you/him/her/it/us/you/them
possessive adjectives :my/your/his/her/its/our/your/their
possessive pronouns :mine/yours/his/hers/its/ours/yours/theirs
reflexive pronouns :myself/yourself/himself/herself/itself/ourselves/yourselves/themselves


comparaison and superlative
1 syllable :adj+ er/est
2 syllables ending in"y":adj+ier/iest
2 syllables :more/most+adj
3 syllables or more :more/most+adj
irregular:good-better-best
bad-worse-worst
many/much-more-most
little-less-least
far-farther-farthest


adjectives and adverbs





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Definition - Adjectives
are words that describe nouns or pronouns. They may come before the
word they describe (That is a cute puppy.) or they may follow the word
they describe (That puppy is cute.).

Definition - Adverbs
are words that modify everything but nouns and pronouns. They modify
adjectives, verbs, and other adverbs. A word is an adverb if it answers how, when, or where.





















The only adverbs that cause grammatical problems are those that answer the question how, so focus on these.
Examples:He speaks slowly.
Answers the question how.
He speaks very slowly.
Answers the question how slowly.




























Rule 1.Generally, if a word answers the question how, it is an adverb. If it can have an -ly added to it, place it there.
Examples:She thinks slow/slowly.
She thinks how? slowly.
She is a slow/slowly thinker.
Slow does not answer how, so no -ly is attached. Slow is an adjective here.
She thinks fast/fastly.
Fast answers the question how, so it is an adverb. But fast never has an -ly attached to it.
We performed bad/badly.
Badly
describes how we performed.




























Rule 2.A special -ly rule applies when four of the senses - taste, smell, look, feel - are the verbs. Do not ask if these senses answer the question how to determine if -ly should be attached. Instead, ask if the sense verb is being used actively. If so, use the -ly.
Examples:Roses smell sweet/sweetly.
Do the roses actively smell with noses? No, so no -ly.
The woman looked angry/angrily.
Did the woman actively look with eyes or are we describing her appearance? We are only describing appearance, so no -ly.
The woman looked angry/angrily at the paint splotches.
Here the woman did actively look with eyes, so the -ly is added.
She feels bad/badly about the news.

She is not feeling with fingers, so no -ly.

Good vs. Well




























Rule 3.The word good is an adjective, while well is an adverb.
Examples:You did a good job.
Good
describes the job.
You did the job well.

Well answers how.

You smell good today.
Describes your odor, not how you smell with your nose, so follow with the adjective.
You smell well for someone with a cold.
You are actively smelling with a nose here, so follow with the adverb.
































Rule 4.When referring to health, use well rather than good.
Examples:I do not feel well.
You do not look well today.

NOTE: You may use good with feel when you are not referring to health.
Example:I feel good about my decision to learn Spanish.













































Rule 5.A common error in using adjectives and
adverbs arises from using the wrong form for comparison. For instance,
to describe one thing we would say poor, as in, "She is poor." To compare two things, we should say poorer, as in, "She is the poorer of the two women." To compare more than two things, we should say poorest, as in, "She is the poorest of them all."
Examples:OneTwoThree or More
sweetsweetersweetest
badworseworst
efficient*more efficient*most efficient*
*Usually with words of three or more syllables, don't add -er or -est. Use more or most in front of the words.





































Rule 6.Never drop the -ly from an adverb when using the comparison form.
Correct:She spoke quickly.
She spoke more quickly than he did.
Incorrect:She spoke quicker than he did.
Correct:Talk quietly.
Talk more quietly.
Incorrect:Talk quieter.






















Rule 7.When this, that, these, and those are followed by nouns, they are adjectives. When they appear without a noun following them, they are pronouns.
Examples:This house is for sale.
This
is an adjective here.
This is for sale.
This
is a pronoun here.




























Rule 8.This and that are singular, whether they are being used as adjectives or as pronouns. This points to something nearby while that points to something "over there."
Examples:This dog is mine.
That dog is hers.
This is mine.
That is hers.





























Rule 9.These and those are plural, whether they are being used as adjectives or as pronouns. These points to something nearby while those points to something "over there."
Examples: These babies have been smiling for a long time.
These are mine.
Those babies have been crying for hours.
Those are yours.






















Rule 10.Use than to show comparison. Use then to answer the question when.
Examples:I would rather go skiing than rock climbing.
First we went skiing; then we went rock climbing.


==========================================================================================




rules for irregular plural formation of nouns





Rules for Irregular Plural Formation of Nouns

The majority of nouns in English spell their plural by simply adding a final -s. Nouns that are noncount or abstract (e.g., cheese, sugar, honesty, intelligence)
generally take a singular verb, but in some instances can be plural, in
which case they follow the rules for plural based on their spelling.
Also, there are some categories of words which are only plural, even
though their spelling does not reflect this. They are included in a list
at the end of this page. For irregular count nouns and nouns that have
been borrowed from other languages, the rules are as follows:


Variations of the final -s rule:
Nouns that end with -s, -z, -x, -sh, -ch
Add -es glass/glasses, buzz/buzzes, box/boxes, bush/bushes, switch/switches

Nouns that end in -o
Add -es potato/potatoes, echo/echoes, hero/heroes exceptions: studio/studios, piano/pianos, kangaroo/kangaroos, zoo/zoos either: buffalo/buffalo(e)s, cargo/cargo(e)s, motto/motto(e)s, volcano/volcano(e)s

Nouns that end in a consonant + -y
Change -y to -i and add -es baby/babies, spy/spies, poppy/poppies

Nouns that end in -f, or -fe
Change the -f to -v and add -es

shelf/shelves, wolf/wolves, knife/knives, wife/wives

Nouns adopted from other languages:
Singular ends in -is
Plural ends in -es analysis/analyses, basis/bases

Singular ends in -um
Plural ends in -a datum/data, curriculum/curricula

Singular ends in -on
Plural ends in -a criterion/criteria, phenomenon/phenomena

Singular ends in -a
Plural ends in -ae formula/formulae, antenna/antennae

Singular ends in -ex or -ix
Plural ends in -ices appendix/appendices, index/indices

Singular ends in -us
Plural ends in -i focus/foci, stimulus/stimuli

Singular ends in -us
Plural ends in -a corpus/corpora, genus/genera

Singular ends in -eau
Plural ends in -eaux bureau/bureaux, beau/beaux

Nouns that have only a plural form and so take a plural verb
Things that come in pairs
Tools: glasses, scissors, binoculars, forceps, tongs, tweezers Clothes: jeans, pants, pajamas, shorts, trousers

Nouns that end in -s but have no singular (aggregate nouns)
accommodations, amends, archives, arms (weapons), bowels, intestines, brains (intellect), clothes, communications, congratulations, contents, stairs, thanks, goods

Nouns that are plural but do not end in -s
people, police, cattle, people







===========================================================================================









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english lessons 1

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