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|موضوع: english lessons 1 18.09.12 16:55|| |
list of irregular verbs
|Base Form||Simple Past Tense||Past Participle|
===========================================================================================pronouns / adjectives / comparaison / superlative / adverbs pronouns and adjectives
personal pronouns :i/you/he/she/it/we/you/they
object pronouns :me/you/him/her/it/us/you/them
possessive adjectives :my/your/his/her/its/our/your/their
possessive pronouns :mine/yours/his/hers/its/ours/yours/theirs
reflexive pronouns :myself/yourself/himself/herself/itself/ourselves/yourselves/themselvescomparaison and superlative1 syllable :adj+ er/est2 syllables ending in"y":adj+ier/iest2 syllables :more/most+adj3 syllables or more :more/most+adjirregular:good-better-best bad-worse-worst many/much-more-most little-less-least far-farther-farthest adjectives and adverbs
|Definition - Adjectives|
are words that describe nouns or pronouns. They may come before the
word they describe (That is a cute puppy.) or they may follow the word
they describe (That puppy is cute.).
Definition - Adverbs
are words that modify everything but nouns and pronouns. They modify
adjectives, verbs, and other adverbs. A word is an adverb if it answers how, when, or where.
|The only adverbs that cause grammatical problems are those that answer the question how, so focus on these.|
| ||Examples:||He speaks slowly.|
Answers the question how.
|He speaks very slowly.|
Answers the question how slowly.
|Rule 1.||Generally, if a word answers the question how, it is an adverb. If it can have an -ly added to it, place it there.|
| ||Examples:||She thinks slow/slowly.|
She thinks how? slowly.
|She is a slow/slowly thinker.|
Slow does not answer how, so no -ly is attached. Slow is an adjective here.
|She thinks fast/fastly.|
Fast answers the question how, so it is an adverb. But fast never has an -ly attached to it.
|We performed bad/badly.|
Badly describes how we performed.
Good vs. Well
|Rule 2.||A special -ly rule applies when four of the senses - taste, smell, look, feel - are the verbs. Do not ask if these senses answer the question how to determine if -ly should be attached. Instead, ask if the sense verb is being used actively. If so, use the -ly.|
| ||Examples:||Roses smell sweet/sweetly.|
Do the roses actively smell with noses? No, so no -ly.
|The woman looked angry/angrily.|
Did the woman actively look with eyes or are we describing her appearance? We are only describing appearance, so no -ly.
|The woman looked angry/angrily at the paint splotches.|
Here the woman did actively look with eyes, so the -ly is added.
|She feels bad/badly about the news.|
She is not feeling with fingers, so no -ly.
|Rule 3.||The word good is an adjective, while well is an adverb.|
| ||Examples:||You did a good job.|
Good describes the job.
|You did the job well.|
Well answers how.
|You smell good today.|
Describes your odor, not how you smell with your nose, so follow with the adjective.
|You smell well for someone with a cold.|
You are actively smelling with a nose here, so follow with the adverb.
|Rule 4.||When referring to health, use well rather than good.|
| ||Examples:||I do not feel well.|
|You do not look well today.|
| ||NOTE: ||You may use good with feel when you are not referring to health.|
| ||Example:||I feel good about my decision to learn Spanish.|
|Rule 5.||A common error in using adjectives and |
adverbs arises from using the wrong form for comparison. For instance,
to describe one thing we would say poor, as in, "She is poor." To compare two things, we should say poorer, as in, "She is the poorer of the two women." To compare more than two things, we should say poorest, as in, "She is the poorest of them all."
| ||Examples:||One||Two||Three or More|
| || ||sweet||sweeter||sweetest|
| || ||bad||worse||worst|
| || ||efficient*||more efficient*||most efficient*|
|*Usually with words of three or more syllables, don't add -er or -est. Use more or most in front of the words.|
|Rule 6.||Never drop the -ly from an adverb when using the comparison form.|
| ||Correct:||She spoke quickly.|
|She spoke more quickly than he did.|
|Incorrect:||She spoke quicker than he did.|
|Talk more quietly.|
|Rule 7.||When this, that, these, and those are followed by nouns, they are adjectives. When they appear without a noun following them, they are pronouns.|
| ||Examples:||This house is for sale.|
This is an adjective here.
|This is for sale.|
This is a pronoun here.
|Rule 8.||This and that are singular, whether they are being used as adjectives or as pronouns. This points to something nearby while that points to something "over there."|
| ||Examples:||This dog is mine.|
|That dog is hers.|
|This is mine.|
|That is hers.|
|Rule 9.||These and those are plural, whether they are being used as adjectives or as pronouns. These points to something nearby while those points to something "over there."|
| ||Examples: ||These babies have been smiling for a long time.|
| ||These are mine.|
|Those babies have been crying for hours.|
|Those are yours.|
|Rule 10.||Use than to show comparison. Use then to answer the question when.|
| ||Examples:||I would rather go skiing than rock climbing.|
|First we went skiing; then we went rock climbing.|
========================================================================================== rules for irregular plural formation of nounsRules for Irregular Plural Formation of Nouns The majority of nouns in English spell their plural by simply adding a final -s. Nouns that are noncount or abstract (e.g., cheese, sugar, honesty, intelligence)
generally take a singular verb, but in some instances can be plural, in
which case they follow the rules for plural based on their spelling.
Also, there are some categories of words which are only plural, even
though their spelling does not reflect this. They are included in a list
at the end of this page. For irregular count nouns and nouns that have
been borrowed from other languages, the rules are as follows: Variations of the final -s rule:
Nouns that end with -s, -z, -x, -sh, -ch
Add -es glass/glasses, buzz/buzzes, box/boxes, bush/bushes, switch/switches
Nouns that end in -o
Add -es potato/potatoes, echo/echoes, hero/heroes exceptions: studio/studios, piano/pianos, kangaroo/kangaroos, zoo/zoos either: buffalo/buffalo(e)s, cargo/cargo(e)s, motto/motto(e)s, volcano/volcano(e)s
Nouns that end in a consonant + -y
and add -es baby/babies, spy/spies, poppy/poppies
Nouns that end in -f
, or -fe
Change the -f
and add -esshelf/shelves, wolf/wolves, knife/knives, wife/wivesNouns adopted from other languages:
Singular ends in -is
Plural ends in -es analysis/analyses, basis/bases
Singular ends in -um
Plural ends in -a datum/data, curriculum/curricula
Singular ends in -on
Plural ends in -a criterion/criteria, phenomenon/phenomena
Singular ends in -a
Plural ends in -ae formula/formulae, antenna/antennae
Singular ends in -ex
Plural ends in -ices appendix/appendices, index/indices
Singular ends in -us
Plural ends in -i focus/foci, stimulus/stimuli
Singular ends in -us
Plural ends in -a corpus/corpora, genus/genera
Singular ends in -eau
Plural ends in -eaux bureau/bureaux, beau/beauxNouns that have only a plural form and so take a plural verb
Things that come in pairs
Tools: glasses, scissors, binoculars, forceps, tongs, tweezers
Clothes: jeans, pants, pajamas, shorts, trousers
Nouns that end in -s
but have no singular (aggregate nouns) accommodations, amends, archives, arms (weapons), bowels, intestines, brains (intellect), clothes, communications, congratulations, contents, stairs, thanks, goods
Nouns that are plural but do not end in -s people, police, cattle, people